The vision of nextcity.nl offers quality of life for all species. Initiated by architect Mathias Lehner and landscape architect Maike van Stiphout in 2014 with the symposium and exihibit 'Live with live' in Amsterdam, the mission of nextcity.nl is to develop and share new knowledge by reseach, practice and university teaching. The thinking and design of nextcity.nl has been shown at the Venice Architecture Biennale and the Dutch Design Week. In 2019 the 'First Guide to Nature Inclusive Building' was published, since 2020 also available in Dutch.
Architect, real estate developer and sustainability expert at the Ryerson School of Interior Design Lloyd Alter draws a parallel in his April 2020 blog between today’s corona crisis and the beginning of the 20th century when children were sent out into schools in the open air because of the risk of tuberculosis. Alter says there is a similar situation now: kids need fresh air and sunlight, but also a bit of separation. What if we re-adopt these ideas, learn from the past and reinterpret them today?
In 1904 in Germany the first ‘Waldschule’ opened. Later famously the Plein Air school in Suresnes (Beaudouin and Lods), and of course the Openairschool in Amsterdam (Duiker) 1927. Teaching in nature was to believed “to help build independence and self-esteem in urban youths” and even an International Bureau of Open Air Schools was set up.
Can the past downsides – high maintenance and an educational climate that demanded control and avoided distraction – be ovecome? What if the principles were for example rethought for homes for the elderly? Visiting granny with no barrieres between inside and outside makes a 1,5 m social distance a burden that can be overcome.
On behalf of BNA, Royal Institute of Dutch Architects, Mathias Lehner interviewed Jip Louwe Kooijmans of Birdlife Netherlands about the ‘Toolbox Nature Inclusive Building’ that was launched at the end of 2019. Is nature-inclusive designing a new businessmodel?
Jip Louwe Kooijmans: To begin with: nature-inclusive construction does not have to be expensive. Many things are free. With a cavity in a wall of 10mm, for example, nothing happens, but with a cavity of 18mm, animals can enter. That brings no extra cost. A project such as Bosco Verticale in Milan and Wonderwoods in Utrecht will have additional costs. Although the Trudo tower is now being built in Eindhoven in which social rental housing will be built – and that is also succeeding.
But nature-inclusive design can strengthen the entrepreneurship of an architect in various ways. You can become an expert with a unique proposition. Architect Daan Bruggink of ORGA architects or landscape architect Maike van Stiphout of nextcity.nl are, for example, designers who profile themselves with that theme. They offer unique services and can advise you. For example: what kind of green roof yields the most? Architects can also distinguish themselves with nature-inclusive building when it comes to their public relations. Doing something for nature can radiate positively on you. Doing good and positive news contribute to your good image and reputation.
Already designing nature inclusive is also of strategic importance. Sustainability has become an integral part of construction in the past 10 years. In the future, nature-inclusive construction will also become even more important, especially in Europe. There will be a uniform standard and clients will more often ask for nature-inclusive designs. In the future, such regulations will apply to everyone and will ensure a level playing field. There is no longer any fear of, for example, a pause in your construction period: if you build nature-inclusive, you anticipate on the local biodiversity in advance and you can avoid financial setbacks.
Biodiversity, climate change, work stress, mental health, learning and work performance and health care costs – green cities can contribute to solving many of today’s urban problems. Scientifically proven facts about the added value of green space are now bundled by Wageningen UR. De Groene Stad provides these fact sheets as free downloads.
Curious to hear five great proven benefits of ‘green in the city’?
Crime in green areas is lower and residents feel safer than in areas without green areas.
Greenery in the form of parks and public gardens increases the real estate value of homes by an average of 4 to 5%.
An average city tree captures 100 grams of fine dust annually. This corresponds to 5500 kilometers driven by car. Other forms of green also contribute to air purification; a square meter of ivy captures 4 to 6 grams of fine dust per year, a sedum roof 0.15 grams / m2.
10% more greenery in a city reduces the heat island effect in that city by an average of 0.6 ºC. Around Kensington Park in London, a cooling effect of up to 440 m from the park was measured with up to 4 ºC.
A study in Toronto found that people living in neighborhoods with a higher density of street trees not only felt significantly healthier, but were also significantly less affected by cardiovascular disease. Ten extra trees per street block ensure that age-related health problems occur seven years later on average .
“Next to limiting urban biodiversity many ecosystem services are decreased by sealing urban surfaces. Petrification enhances the urban heat island effect which has a negative effect on people’s health. Sealing surfaces also has a negative effect on air quality eg. when it comes to fine dust. The absence of greenery has a negative effect on health, recovery and human well-being. And, of course, application of pavement reduces the permeability of the soil. The accelerated drainage of rainwater leads to overloading of the sewer system”, states the Steenbreek Foundation.
The Steenbreek Foundation
(‘breaking the stone’) is greening the environment together with municipalities,
water boards and provinces by e.g. replacing unnecessary pavement in private
and public space with a diversity of greenery by involving residents and
entrepreneurs. Also, extra ponds and wadis are constructed with as a result water
can enter the ground more easily.
More info? Operation Steenbreek was established in 2015 to act against the trend to harden private gardens by four city ecologists joining forces together with Entente Florale Nederland, the University of Groningen, Wageningen Environmental Research and Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences. Prominent events are the National Garden Week, Soil Animal Days, Nature Work Day, National Green Day and various Knowledge Meetings in collaboration with Elba | REC. Image (c) rijswijk.tv 2017
Let’s pay some more attention for the soil in cities! Next to the function of soil species in the eco system of being food for other species, and contributing to natural control, their more important role is the delivery of ecosystem services that are relevant above ground, too: soil structure, soil fertility, water infiltration, development for vegetation – and biodiversity.
There are more than 34.000 species living in the Dutch soil of which 28% – some 6000 species depend strongly on the ground as habitat. A part of them lives part of their life circle (facultatively) in the soil, but many also remain there during their full life circle (obligatory).
In the city of Amsterdam a large amount of the nationally present species can be found. There are eg. 14 species of all ants (30%), but of others species sometimes more than half of alle species can be found in the city. Mapping evidence shows that of some species there are even more examples in the urban areas than in the more rural parts.
Want to know more about all species in The Netherlands? Check the Dutch Register of Species. This blog is based upon a presentation by Prof. Dr. Matty Berg from the Faculty of Science, Animal Ecology using data from the VU university Amsterdam and the Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
In the outskirts of Graz, the second city of Austria, green atriums, Co2 neutral building materials, prefabricated timber modules and – most of all – a succesful combination of architecture and landscaping make the Josefhof Health Centre an architectural gem that contributes to the well being of its ambulant clients in the primary care clinic and one hundred stationary patients.
Commissioned by the insurance company for railways and mining and designed by architect Dietger Wissounig Architects the horizontally structured healthcare building is situated in an orchid meadow typical for the area. Its stacked roof landscape can be viewed from the rooms and feature extensive greenery. Looking at the ecosystem services provided the benefits are a microclimate in the immediate vicinity to the rooms, improved sound insulation and pleasant views cheering up the patients. In addition this design strategy extends the life of the roof skin claims the architect.
This post is based upon an article by Leoni Spies published on detail.de.
The theory of Biophilia teaches us that humans long to (re)connect to nature, and that it improves our wellbeing. Positive impact on self-esteem and mood has been shown to occur in the first five minutes of experiencing nature (Barton&Pretty, 2010). Especially in cities expanding and densifying, there is a need to design places to connect people to nature. Everybody who has visited New York on a hot day and spent some time in Paley Park or one of the other pocket parks might recognize this effect. In the current corona period it becomes even more evident that we need to connect to nature, and therefor have to actively design our cities to bring nature in.
The consultants of Terrapin Bright Green set out a strategy for small and feasible interventions: Biophilic Urban Acupuncture (BUA). Just as the practice of acupuncture is aimed at relieving stress in the human body, the goal of urban acupuncture is to relieve stress in the built environment. BUA is the theory that threads and nodes of biophilic interventions in specific urban places can help improve people’s moods, connect people to place, and help improve mental health.
BUA has higher levels of effectiveness in dense cities versus suburban places due to the ease of pedestrian mobility. Smaller BUA interventions should be placed in locations throughout the city which, in a web-like structure, users with different destinations will experience biophilic experiences no matter where they traveling to.
This blog is based upon a text by Jonce Walker, urban planner and sustainability professional, published online by Terrapin Bright Green, a small New York sustainability consulting firm founded in 2006.
Nice to know: Terrapin is also the name for a species of turtle that can
live in both fresh and saltwater.
Housing Cooperation De Warren starts with a new housing project on IJburg (Amsterdam) that ‘structurally supports and improves biodiversity‘. Next to a large green roof the ‘piéce de résistance’ is the more than 1 meter wide wooden outer shell of the building made of reused mooring posts featuring outdoor spaces for the human inhabitants and shelter for a large variety of plants and birds.
Architect Boris Zeisser of Natrufied Architecture designed the ultra-collective apartment building De Warren on the new Centrum Eiland in IJburg. Next to 36 social and mid-market rental apartments there are 800 sqm of collective spaces inclusing a theater, yoga space, makerspace, offices, meeting rooms, kidsspace and a music studio. The design is the result of four workshop days with all the future residents.
The building will be made of biobased materials. The structure is drawn up from CLT (cross laminated timber), flax insulation and recycled wooden finishes. Reusing building products from demolished buildings is being researched. The building will be completely energy self-sufficient and ‘rain proof’.
Due to the measurements taken in the current Corona period public life in cities has decreased. Wild animals have sensed these peaceful urban areas and are discovering formerly unchartered parts of our cities. A new form of public life evolved subsequently.
Reuters shared footage of deer resting and fouraging in a park in the East of London in the beginning of April. Also, Reuters reports of a wilde bear inspecting a temporarily empty cable car station in the metropolitan area of Istanbul. Earlier in the week wild goats have been spotted eating flowers from the window sills in residential areas in North Wales, as have been wild peacocks. In Chile, finally, the third wild cougar has been filmed (and caught) in the capital of Chile, Santiago, reports BBC/Reuters.
In times of Corona many people are improving their home, and, if they have one, their garden. Just in time with Spring having arrived and the nice weather the new Dutch National Garden Check App has been launched. It easily guides you through a number of questions about your garden, that help improve quality of life for all species. For example: how do you deal with the soil? How do you control unwanted insects and plants? What kind of garden fence do you have? Based on the answers, a score is calculated, from A (very good) to G (work to be done!) And tips are given. You can use it for a greener and finer garden where people and animals like.